## Hello World!

1 like • Aug 31, 2020 • 2 views
C++

## More C++ Posts

#### Audio Frequency Amplitudes

0 likes • Aug 27, 2021 • 1 view
C++
//From https://create.arduino.cc/projecthub/abhilashpatel121/easyfft-fast-fourier-transform-fft-for-arduino-9d2677#include <cmath>#include <iostream>const unsigned char sine_data[] = {	//Quarter a sine wave	0, 	4, 9, 13, 18, 22, 27, 31, 35, 40, 44, 	49, 53, 57, 62, 66, 70, 75, 79, 83, 87, 	91, 96, 100, 104, 108, 112, 116, 120, 124, 127, 	131, 135, 139, 143, 146, 150, 153, 157, 160, 164, 	167, 171, 174, 177, 180, 183, 186, 189, 192, 195, //Paste this at top of program	198, 201, 204, 206, 209, 211, 214, 216, 219, 221, 	223, 225, 227, 229, 231, 233, 235, 236, 238, 240, 	241, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 	252, 253, 253, 254, 254, 254, 255, 255, 255, 255};float sine(int i){	//Inefficient sine	int j=i;	float out;	while(j < 0) j = j + 360;	while(j > 360) j = j - 360;	if(j > -1 && j < 91) out = sine_data[j];	else if(j > 90 && j < 181) out = sine_data[180 - j];	else if(j > 180 && j < 271) out = -sine_data[j - 180];	else if(j > 270 && j < 361) out = -sine_data[360 - j];	return (out / 255);}
float cosine(int i){	//Inefficient cosine	int j = i;	float out;	while(j < 0) j = j + 360;	while(j > 360) j = j - 360;	if(j > -1 && j < 91) out = sine_data[90 - j];	else if(j > 90 && j < 181) out = -sine_data[j - 90];	else if(j > 180 && j < 271) out = -sine_data[270 - j];	else if(j > 270 && j < 361) out = sine_data[j - 270];	return (out / 255);}
//Example data:
//-----------------------------FFT Function----------------------------------------------//float* FFT(int in[],unsigned int N,float Frequency){	//Result is highest frequencies in order of loudness. Needs to be deleted.	/*	Code to perform FFT on arduino,	setup:	paste sine_data [91] at top of program [global variable], paste FFT function at end of program	Term:	1. in[] : Data array, 	2. N : Number of sample (recommended sample size 2,4,8,16,32,64,128...)	3. Frequency: sampling frequency required as input (Hz)
If sample size is not in power of 2 it will be clipped to lower side of number. 	i.e, for 150 number of samples, code will consider first 128 sample, remaining sample will be omitted.	For Arduino nano, FFT of more than 128 sample not possible due to mamory limitation (64 recomended)	For higher Number of sample may arise Mamory related issue,	Code by ABHILASH	Contact: [email protected] 	Documentation:https://www.instructables.com/member/abhilash_patel/instructables/	2/3/2021: change data type of N from float to int for >=256 samples	*/
unsigned int sampleRates[13]={1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128,256,512,1024,2048};	int a = N;	int o;	for(int i=0;i<12;i++){		//Snapping N to a sample rate in sampleRates		if(sampleRates[i]<=a){			o = i;		}	}		 	int in_ps[sampleRates[o]] = {}; //input for sequencing	float out_r[sampleRates[o]] = {}; //real part of transform	float out_im[sampleRates[o]] = {}; //imaginory part of transform	int x = 0; 	int c1;	int f;	for(int b=0;b<o;b++){ // bit reversal		c1 = sampleRates[b];		f = sampleRates[o] / (c1 + c1);		for(int j = 0;j < c1;j++){ 			x = x + 1;			in_ps[x]=in_ps[j]+f;		}	}
for(int i=0;i<sampleRates[o];i++){ // update input array as per bit reverse order		if(in_ps[i]<a){			out_r[i]=in[in_ps[i]];		}		if(in_ps[i]>a){			out_r[i]=in[in_ps[i]-a];		} 	}

int i10,i11,n1;	float e,c,s,tr,ti;
for(int i=0;i<o;i++){ //fft		i10 = sampleRates[i]; // overall values of sine/cosine :		i11 = sampleRates[o] / sampleRates[i+1]; // loop with similar sine cosine:		e = 360 / sampleRates[i+1];		e = 0 - e;		n1 = 0;
for(int j=0;j<i10;j++){			c=cosine(e*j);			s=sine(e*j); 			n1=j;
for(int k=0;k<i11;k++){				tr = c*out_r[i10 + n1]-s*out_im[i10 + n1];				ti = s*out_r[i10 + n1]+c*out_im[i10 + n1];
out_r[n1 + i10] = out_r[n1]-tr;				out_r[n1] = out_r[n1]+tr;
out_im[n1 + i10] = out_im[n1]-ti;				out_im[n1] = out_im[n1]+ti;
n1 = n1+i10+i10;			} 		}	}
/*	for(int i=0;i<sampleRates[o];i++)	{	std::cout << (out_r[i]);	std::cout << ("\t"); // un comment to print RAW o/p 	std::cout << (out_im[i]); std::cout << ("i"); 	std::cout << std::endl;	}	*/

//---> here onward out_r contains amplitude and our_in conntains frequency (Hz)	for(int i=0;i<sampleRates[o-1];i++){ // getting amplitude from compex number		out_r[i] = sqrt(out_r[i]*out_r[i]+out_im[i]*out_im[i]); // to increase the speed delete sqrt		out_im[i] = i * Frequency / N;		std::cout << (out_im[i]); std::cout << ("Hz");		std::cout << ("\t");	// un comment to print freuency bin 		std::cout << (out_r[i]);		std::cout << std::endl;	}

x = 0; // peak detection	for(int i=1;i<sampleRates[o-1]-1;i++){		if(out_r[i]>out_r[i-1] && out_r[i]>out_r[i+1]){			in_ps[x] = i; //in_ps array used for storage of peak number			x = x + 1;		} 	}

s = 0;	c = 0;	for(int i=0;i<x;i++){ // re arraange as per magnitude		for(int j=c;j<x;j++){			if(out_r[in_ps[i]]<out_r[in_ps[j]]){				s=in_ps[i];				in_ps[i]=in_ps[j];				in_ps[j]=s;			}		}		c=c+1;	}	float* f_peaks = new float[sampleRates[o]];	for(int i=0;i<5;i++){ // updating f_peak array (global variable)with descending order		f_peaks[i]=out_im[in_ps[i]];	}	return f_peaks;}
//------------------------------------------------------------------------------------////main.cppint data[64]={14, 30, 35, 34, 34, 40, 46, 45, 30, 4, -26, -48, -55, -49, -37,-28, -24, -22, -13, 6, 32, 55, 65, 57, 38, 17, 1, -6, -11, -19, -34, -51, -61, -56, -35, -7, 18, 32, 35, 34, 35, 41, 46, 43, 26, -2, -31, -50,-55, -47, -35, -27, -24, -21, -10, 11, 37, 58, 64, 55, 34, 13, -1, -7};
int main(){	const unsigned int SAMPLE_RATE = 48*1000;	//48khz	auto result = FFT(data,64,SAMPLE_RATE);	std::cout << result[0] << " " << result[1] << " " << result[2] << " " << result[3] << std::endl;	delete[] result;	return 0;}

#### Heapify a vector

0 likes • Nov 19, 2022 • 0 views
C++
#include <iostream>#include <vector>using namespace std;
void swap(int *a, int *b){  int temp = *b;  *b = *a;  *a = temp;}void heapify(vector<int> &hT, int i){  int size = hT.size();  int largest = i;  int l = 2 * i + 1;  int r = 2 * i + 2;  if (l < size && hT[l] > hT[largest])    largest = l;  if (r < size && hT[r] > hT[largest])    largest = r;
if (largest != i)  {    swap(&hT[i], &hT[largest]);    heapify(hT, largest);  }}void insert(vector<int> &hT, int newNum){  int size = hT.size();  if (size == 0)  {    hT.push_back(newNum);  }  else  {    hT.push_back(newNum);    for (int i = size / 2 - 1; i >= 0; i--)    {      heapify(hT, i);    }  }}void deleteNode(vector<int> &hT, int num){  int size = hT.size();  int i;  for (i = 0; i < size; i++)  {    if (num == hT[i])      break;  }  swap(&hT[i], &hT[size - 1]);
hT.pop_back();  for (int i = size / 2 - 1; i >= 0; i--)  {    heapify(hT, i);  }}void printArray(vector<int> &hT){  for (int i = 0; i < hT.size(); ++i)    cout << hT[i] << " ";  cout << "\n";}
int main(){  vector<int> heapTree;
insert(heapTree, 3);  insert(heapTree, 4);  insert(heapTree, 9);  insert(heapTree, 5);  insert(heapTree, 2);
cout << "Max-Heap array: ";  printArray(heapTree);
deleteNode(heapTree, 4);
cout << "After deleting an element: ";
printArray(heapTree);}

#### Literal Bruh

0 likes • Jul 30, 2023 • 5 views
C++
//Constant prefix notation solver using bruh//Could make it infix or postfix later#include<string>#include<vector>#include<iostream>
std::vector<long double> bruhBuff;
long double operator ""bruh(long double a){    bruhBuff.push_back(a);    return a;}
long double operator ""bruh(const char op){    if(bruhBuff.size() < 2) throw "Bruh weak";        long double b = bruhBuff.back();    bruhBuff.pop_back();    long double a = bruhBuff.back();    bruhBuff.pop_back();            switch(op){        case (int)('+'):            return a + b;        case (int)('-'):            return a - b;        case (int)('*'):            return a * b;        case (int)('/'):            return a / b;    }    return 69l;} int main(){    1.0bruh;    2.0bruh;    std::cout << '+'bruh << std::endl;        return 0;}

#### Stock Options Analyzer

0 likes • Nov 18, 2022 • 0 views
C++
#include <iostream>#include <cmath>#include <string.h>
using namespace std;
int main() {
string tickerName;    int numOfContracts;    float currentOptionValue;
cout << "Enter a stock ticker: ";    getline(cin, tickerName);
cout << "Enter the current number of " << tickerName << " contracts you are holding: ";    cin >> numOfContracts;

cout << "Enter the current price of the option: ";    cin >> currentOptionValue;

cout << "The value of your " << tickerName << " options are: \$" << (currentOptionValue * 100.00) * (numOfContracts);
cout << endl;
return 0;}

#### BFS/DFS/TopSort

0 likes • Apr 30, 2021 • 3 views
C++
#include <bits/stdc++.h>#define MAXSIZE 50000#define INF 100000
using namespace std;
bool visited[MAXSIZE]; //Checks if a node is visited or not in BFS and DFSbool isConnected = true; //Checks if the input graph is connected or not
int dist[MAXSIZE], discover[MAXSIZE], finish[MAXSIZE]; //Distance for BFS, in time and out time for DFSint t = 1; //Time used for DFSint u, v, i, j, k, N = 0;
stack<int> st; //Stack for TopSort
multiset<pair<int, int>> s; //collection of pairs to sort by distancepair<int, int> current; //pointer variable to a position in the multiset
void BFS(){	queue<int> q; //queue for BFS	q.push(1); //pushing the source	dist[1] = 0; //assign the distance of source as 0	visited[1] = 1; //marking as visited		while(!q.empty())	{	u = q.front();	q.pop();
if(!visited[v]) //if not visited, update the distance and push onto queue	{	visited[v] = 1;	dist[v] = dist[u]+1;	q.push(v);	}
}
}		for(i = 1; i <= N; i++)	{	s.insert(make_pair(dist[i], i)); //for sorted distance	}		cout << "BFS results:" << endl;		//prints BFS results and checks if the graph is connected	while(!s.empty())	{	current = *s.begin(); 	s.erase(s.begin());
i = current.second; 	j = current.first;
if(j == INF) //if any infinite value, graph is not connected	{	cout << i << " INF" << endl;	isConnected = false;	}	else	{	cout << i << " " << j << endl;	}
}
//marks blocks of memory as visited	memset(visited, 0, sizeof visited);}

void dfsSearch(int s){	visited[s] = 1; //marking it visited	discover[s] = t++; //assigning and incrementing time
int i, v;
if(!visited[v]) //if vertex is not visited then visit, else continue	{	dfsSearch(v);	}
}
st.push(s); //pushed onto stack for TopSort if it was called	finish[s] = t++; //out time}
void DFS(){
for(i = 1; i <= N; i++)	{	if(visited[i]) //if visited continue, else visit it with DFS	{	continue;	}
dfsSearch(i); //embedded function to actually perform DFS	}
for(i=1;i<=N;i++)	{	s.insert(make_pair(discover[i], i)); //minheap for sorted discovery time	}		cout << "DFS results:" << endl;
while(!s.empty()) //Prints DFS results as long as the multiset is not empty	{	current = *s.begin(); //duplicates the pointer to first object in the multiset	s.erase(s.begin()); //erases the first object in multiset
i = current.second;	cout << i << " " << discover[i] << " " << finish[i] << endl; //prints discover times and finish times	}
}
void TopSort(){	//call DFS so we can have a sorted stack to print	for(i=1;i<=N;i++)	{	if(visited[i])	{	continue;	}
dfsSearch(i);	}
cout<<"Topological Sort results:"<<endl;
//print sorted results from DFS	while(!st.empty())	{	i = st.top(); 	st.pop();
cout << i << endl;	}
//declare blocks of memory as visited	memset(visited, 0, sizeof visited);
}

int main(){	string str, num, input;	int selection, connectedChoice = 0;

//get to input any file, more freedom than declaring file in command line	cout << "Enter the exact name of your input file [case sensitive]: ";	cin >> input;		ifstream inputFile(input); //Read the input file
//checks if the ifstream cannot open	if(inputFile.fail())	{	cout << endl << "No input files matching that name. Terminating..." << endl;	return 0;	}
//Read until the end of file	while(!inputFile.eof())	{	getline(inputFile, str); //read the current line
if(str == "")	{	continue;	}
if(!isdigit(str[0])) //checks to see if the first item in a line is a digit or not	{	cout << "Invalid file format. You have a line beginning with a non-digit. Terminating..." << endl;	return 0;	}
stringstream ss;	ss << str; //convert the line to stream of strings		ss >> num; //read the line num	stringstream(num) >> u;		while(!ss.eof())	{	ss>>num;	if(stringstream(num) >> v)	{	adj[u].push_back(v); //read the adjacent vertices	}	}
N++; //calculate the number of vertices	sort(adj[u].begin(), adj[u].end()); //sort the adjacency list in case it is not sorted	}		//creates arbitrary values for distance, will check later if INF remain	for(i = 1; i <= N; i++)	{	dist[i] = INF;	}
cout << endl << "Valid Input file loaded!" << endl;
while(selection != 4)	{	cout << "************************************************" << endl;	cout << "What type of analysis would you like to perform?" << endl;	cout << "1: Breadth-First Search" << endl;	cout << "2: Depth-First Search" << endl;	cout << "3: Topological Sort" << endl;	cout << "4: Quit" << endl;	cout << "************************************************" << endl;		//read user input and execute selection	cin >> selection;
switch(selection)	{	case 1:	cout << endl;	BFS();	cout << endl;	cout << "Would you like to know if the graph is connected?" << endl;	cout << "1: Yes" << endl;	cout << "Any other key: No" << endl;	cin >> connectedChoice;
switch(connectedChoice)	{	case 1:	if(!isConnected)	{	cout << "The graph is not connected." << endl << endl;	}	else	{	cout << "The graph is connected!" << endl << endl;	}	break;	default:	break;	}	break;	case 2:	cout << endl;	DFS();	cout << endl;	break;	case 3:	cout << endl;	TopSort();	cout << endl;	break;	case 4:	return 0;	default:	cout << endl << "Invalid selection." << endl; //loops the selection prompt until a valid selection is input.	}
}	}

#### Bit arithmetic + and -

0 likes • Sep 1, 2023 • 2 views
C++
#define NUM_BITS 8
#include <iostream>

struct Number{    int num : NUM_BITS;    Number(){}    Number(const int& bruh){        num = bruh;    }    operator int() const { return num; }    Number& operator=(const int& bruh){        num = bruh;        return (*this);    }};
using namespace std;
bool isNegative(const int& num){    //This gets the bitwise and of num and 10000000000000000000000000000000    //This implicit casts to bool, which means (num & (1 << 31)) != 0    return (num & (1 << 31));}
void printBinaryNumber(const int& num, const int numBits){    for(int i = numBits; i > 0; --i){        //8..1        int bitMask = 1 << (i-1);        if(num & bitMask){ //Test the bit            cout << '1';        }else{            cout << '0';        }    }}
void printCarryBits(const int& a, const int& b, const int numBits){    int answer = 0;        bool carry = false;    for(int i = 0; i < numBits; ++i){        //8..1        int bitMask = 1 << i;        bool aBit = a & bitMask;        bool bBit = b & bitMask;        if(aBit && bBit || aBit && carry || bBit && carry){ //Carry bit is true next            if(carry)                answer |= bitMask;            carry = true;        }else{            if(carry)                answer |= bitMask;            carry = false;        }    }    printBinaryNumber(answer, 8);}

void printBorrowBits(const int& a, const int& b, const int numBits){    int answer = 0;        bool carry = false;    for(int i = 0; i < numBits; ++i){        //8..1        int bitMask = 1 << i;        bool aBit = a & bitMask;        bool bBit = b & bitMask;        if((!(aBit ^ carry)) && bBit){ //Carry bit is true next            if(carry)                answer |= bitMask;            carry = true;        }else{            if(carry)                answer |= bitMask;            carry = false;        }    }    printBinaryNumber(answer, 8);}
void doProblem(const int& a, const int& b, const char& sign, const int& result, const int& numBits){    if(sign == '+'){        cout << ' '; printCarryBits(a, b, numBits); cout << endl;    }else{        cout << ' '; printBorrowBits(a, b, numBits); cout << endl;    }    cout << ' '; printBinaryNumber(a, numBits); cout << endl;    cout << sign; printBinaryNumber(b, numBits); cout << endl;    cout << "----------" << endl;    cout << ""; printBinaryNumber(result, numBits + 1); cout << " = " << result;    cout << endl;}
int main(){        Number a = 0b110;    Number b = 0b011;    cout<< a << endl << b << endl;        doProblem(a, b, '+', a + b, NUM_BITS);    doProblem(a, b, '-', a - b, NUM_BITS);    doProblem(-a, b, '+', -a + b, NUM_BITS);    doProblem(a, b, '-', -a - b, NUM_BITS);
return 0;}