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SAM 5 words with bitmaps

0 likes • Oct 23, 2022 • 1 view
C++
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More C++ Posts

Bit arithmetic + and -

0 likes • Sep 1, 2023 • 2 views
C++
#define NUM_BITS 8
#include <iostream>
struct Number{
int num : NUM_BITS;
Number(){}
Number(const int& bruh){
num = bruh;
}
operator int() const { return num; }
Number& operator=(const int& bruh){
num = bruh;
return (*this);
}
};
using namespace std;
bool isNegative(const int& num){
//This gets the bitwise and of num and 10000000000000000000000000000000
//This implicit casts to bool, which means (num & (1 << 31)) != 0
return (num & (1 << 31));
}
void printBinaryNumber(const int& num, const int numBits){
for(int i = numBits; i > 0; --i){
//8..1
int bitMask = 1 << (i-1);
if(num & bitMask){ //Test the bit
cout << '1';
}else{
cout << '0';
}
}
}
void printCarryBits(const int& a, const int& b, const int numBits){
int answer = 0;
bool carry = false;
for(int i = 0; i < numBits; ++i){
//8..1
int bitMask = 1 << i;
bool aBit = a & bitMask;
bool bBit = b & bitMask;
if(aBit && bBit || aBit && carry || bBit && carry){ //Carry bit is true next
if(carry)
answer |= bitMask;
carry = true;
}else{
if(carry)
answer |= bitMask;
carry = false;
}
}
printBinaryNumber(answer, 8);
}
void printBorrowBits(const int& a, const int& b, const int numBits){
int answer = 0;
bool carry = false;
for(int i = 0; i < numBits; ++i){
//8..1
int bitMask = 1 << i;
bool aBit = a & bitMask;
bool bBit = b & bitMask;
if((!(aBit ^ carry)) && bBit){ //Carry bit is true next
if(carry)
answer |= bitMask;
carry = true;
}else{
if(carry)
answer |= bitMask;
carry = false;
}
}
printBinaryNumber(answer, 8);
}
void doProblem(const int& a, const int& b, const char& sign, const int& result, const int& numBits){
if(sign == '+'){
cout << ' '; printCarryBits(a, b, numBits); cout << endl;
}else{
cout << ' '; printBorrowBits(a, b, numBits); cout << endl;
}
cout << ' '; printBinaryNumber(a, numBits); cout << endl;
cout << sign; printBinaryNumber(b, numBits); cout << endl;
cout << "----------" << endl;
cout << ""; printBinaryNumber(result, numBits + 1); cout << " = " << result;
cout << endl;
}
int main(){
Number a = 0b110;
Number b = 0b011;
cout<< a << endl << b << endl;
doProblem(a, b, '+', a + b, NUM_BITS);
doProblem(a, b, '-', a - b, NUM_BITS);
doProblem(-a, b, '+', -a + b, NUM_BITS);
doProblem(a, b, '-', -a - b, NUM_BITS);
return 0;
}

Egg Problem Template

0 likes • Jul 10, 2023 • 3 views
C++
#include <iostream>
#include <vector>
#include <limits>
#define DEBUG_TRIAL false
class Trial{
public:
const size_t HEIGHT;
std::string record;
//Breaking height is the index of the floor, so 0 is the bottom floor, height-1 is the top floor.
//Eggs is the eggs remaining.
//Start is the bottom floor.
//End is one above the top floor.
const size_t BREAKING_HEIGHT;
size_t eggs;
size_t start;
size_t end;
size_t floorsLeft(){
return (end-start);
}
size_t middle(){
return start + (floorsLeft()/2UL);
}
size_t drops = 0;
Trial(const size_t BREAKING_HEIGHT, size_t eggs, size_t start, size_t end): BREAKING_HEIGHT(BREAKING_HEIGHT), eggs(eggs), start(start), end(end), HEIGHT(end), record(end, '_'){
record[BREAKING_HEIGHT] = 'B'; //Marking the breaking point
}
bool foundAnswer(){
return ((record[0] == 'X') || (record.find("OX")!=std::string::npos));
}
//returns true if the egg broke.
//height is the index of the floor, so 0 is the bottom floor, height-1 is the top floor.
bool drop(size_t height){
#if DEBUG_TRIAL
std::cout << "Start: " << start << ". End: " << end << ". Floors Left: " << floorsLeft() << ". Middle Index: " << middle() << std::endl;
#endif
drops++;
bool cracked = height >= BREAKING_HEIGHT;
if(cracked) --eggs;
//Update the record
record[height] = (height >= BREAKING_HEIGHT)? 'X' : 'O';
#if DEBUG_TRIAL
//Print the record
std::cout << record << std::endl;
#endif
return cracked;
}
size_t nowWhat(){
if(foundAnswer()){
return drops;
}else if(eggs <= 0){ //Ran out of eggs
throw "Algorithm failed! No more eggs!";
return 1UL;
}else if(eggs > 1){
return wrecklessSearch();
}else{
return safeSearch();
}
}
size_t safeSearch(){
if(drop(start)){
--end;
}else{
++start;
}
return nowWhat();
}
size_t wrecklessSearch(){
//If the egg breaks
if(drop(middle())){
end -= (floorsLeft()/2UL);
}else{ //egg doesn't crack
start += (floorsLeft()/2UL);
}
return nowWhat();
}
//returns the amount of drops needed to find the answer
size_t search(){
return nowWhat();
}
};
//Height is the height of the building in floors.
//Breaking height is the index of the floor, so 0 is the bottom floor, height-1 is the top floor.
//Eggs is the eggs given.
//returns the amount of drops needed to find the answer
size_t search(const size_t height, const size_t BREAKING_HEIGHT, size_t eggs){
Trial trial(BREAKING_HEIGHT, eggs, 0, height);
return trial.search();
}
class TrialStats {
public:
size_t min = std::numeric_limits<size_t>::max();
size_t max = 0;
double mean = -1.0;
void printStats(){
// Print the results
std::cout << "Minimum drops: " << min << std::endl;
std::cout << "Maximum drops: " << max << std::endl;
std::cout << "Mean drops: " << mean << std::endl;
}
};
//Benchmarks all the possible breaking points of a single building height with a number of eggs.
TrialStats trial(const size_t HEIGHT, const size_t eggs){
TrialStats stats;
int totaldrops = 0;
//Test every possible breaking point
//Breaking height is the index of the floor, so 0 is the bottom floor, height-1 is the top floor.
for (int breakingHeight = 0; breakingHeight < HEIGHT; ++breakingHeight) {
size_t drops = search(HEIGHT, breakingHeight, eggs);
stats.min = std::min(stats.min, drops);
stats.max = std::max(stats.max, drops);
totaldrops += drops;
}
// Calculate the mean number of drops
stats.mean = static_cast<double>(totaldrops) / HEIGHT;
return stats;
}
//Benchmarks a single building height from 1 egg to MAX_EGGS
void testTower(const size_t height, const size_t MAX_EGGS){
//Drop every amount of eggs that you'd need.
for (int eggs = 1; eggs <= MAX_EGGS; ++eggs) {
std::cout << "Building height: " << height << ". Num eggs: " << eggs << std::endl;
TrialStats stats = trial(height, eggs);
stats.printStats();
std::cout << std::endl << std::endl;
}
}
//Benchmarks all buildings from 0 to MAX_HEIGHT
void benchmark(const size_t MAX_HEIGHT){
const size_t MAX_EGGS = 2;
//Test every building
for (size_t height = 1; height <= MAX_HEIGHT; ++height) {
testTower(height, std::min(height, MAX_EGGS));
}
}
int main() {
constexpr size_t MAX_HEIGHT = 36;
benchmark(MAX_HEIGHT);
return 0;
}

Hello World!

0 likes • Aug 31, 2020 • 2 views
C++
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int main() {
cout << "Hello World!\n";
// Prints out "Hello World"
return 0;
}

C++ SigFigs

0 likes • Sep 7, 2022 • 0 views
C++
#include <iostream>
#include <cstring>
int main(int argc, char** argv){
//With decimal
if(strstr(argv[1], ".") != nullptr){
int i = 0;
//Skip i to first non 0 digit
while(argv[1][i] < '1' || argv[1][i] > '9') ++i;
//If digit comes before decimal
if((argv[1] + i) < strstr(argv[1], ".")){ //Good example of pointer arithmetic
std::cout << strlen(argv[1] + i) - 1 << std::endl; //Another good example
}else{
//If digit is after decimal
std::cout << strlen(argv[1] + i) << std::endl;
}
}else{
//Without decimal
int m = 0;
int i = 0;
while(argv[1][i] < '1' || argv[1][i] > '9') ++i; //In case of some number like 0045
for(; argv[1][i] != '\0'; ++i){
if(argv[1][i] >= '1' && argv[1][i] <= '9') m = i + 1;
}
std::cout << m << std::endl;
}
return 0;
}

C++ Range Slicer

0 likes • Oct 31, 2023 • 3 views
C++
//Leif Messinger
//Compile with C++ 20
#include <iostream>
#include <ranges>
#include <vector>
#include <functional>
#include <cctype> //toupper
#include <cxxabi.h>
template <typename T>
void printType(){
std::cout << abi::__cxa_demangle(typeid(T).name(), NULL, NULL, NULL) << std::endl;
}
template <typename T>
class Slicer{
public:
T begin_;
T end_;
T trueEnd;
Slicer(T begin, T end): begin_(begin), end_(begin), trueEnd(end){}
template<typename U>
Slicer(U&& vec) : begin_(vec.begin()), end_(vec.begin()), trueEnd(vec.end()){}
Slicer& finish(){
begin_ = end_;
end_ = trueEnd;
return (*this);
}
Slicer& to(long int index){
begin_ = end_;
if(index > 0){
end_ = (begin_ + index);
}else{
index *= -1;
end_ = (trueEnd - index);
}
return (*this);
}
Slicer& operator[](long int index){
return to(index);
}
T begin(){
return this->begin_;
}
T end(){
return this->end_;
}
Slicer& operator()(std::function<void(decltype(*begin_))> func) {
for(decltype(*begin_) thing : (*this)){
func(thing);
}
return (*this);
}
};
static_assert(std::ranges::range< Slicer<std::vector<int>::const_iterator> >);
int main(){
std::string vec = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz";
Slicer<std::string::const_iterator> bruh(vec);
//printType<decltype(bruh)>();
bruh.to(3)([](char yeet){
std::cout << yeet;
})
.to(-1)([](char yeet){
std::cout << char(std::toupper(yeet));
}).finish()([](char yeet){
std::cout << yeet << yeet << yeet << yeet << yeet;
});
std::cout << std::endl << std::endl;
int arr[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8};
Slicer<int*> arrSlicer(arr, arr + (sizeof(arr)/sizeof(int)));
std::cout << "[";
arrSlicer.to(-1)([](int yeet){
std::cout << yeet << ", ";
}).finish()([](int yeet){
std::cout << yeet << "]" << std::endl;
});
return 0;
}

Daily: Find missing array value

0 likes • Dec 24, 2021 • 18 views
C++
/*
Good morning! Here's your coding interview problem for today.
This problem was asked by Stripe.
Given an array of integers, find the first missing positive integer in linear time and constant space. In other words, find the lowest positive integer that does not exist in the array. The array can contain duplicates and negative numbers as well.
For example, the input [3, 4, -1, 1] should give 2. The input [1, 2, 0] should give 3.
You can modify the input array in-place.
*/
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
int calcMissing(int* input, int size)
{
int sum = 0;
int n = 1; //add one to account for missing value
for(int i = 0; i < size; i++)
{
if(input[i] > 0)
{
sum += input[i];
n++;
}
}
//If no numbers higher than 0, answer is 1
if(sum == 0)
return 1;
return (n*(n+1)/2) - sum; //Formula is expectedSum - actualSum
/* expectedSum = n*(n+1)/2, the formula for sum(1, n) */
}
int main()
{
cout << calcMissing(new int[4]{3, 4, -1, 1}, 4) << endl;
cout << calcMissing(new int[3]{1, 2, 0}, 3) << endl;
//No positive numbers
cout << calcMissing(new int[1]{0}, 1) << endl;
}